Philosophy of Education

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EDN 610: Professional Dialogues in Education Assignment 2 Length: 2500 words

Weight: 60% Submission details:

1. Submit the electronic version of your assignment on or before the due date to Turnitin under assessment on blackboard. Task 1. Develop your own philosophy of education, or philosophy of professional practice, using material examined in the unit and the associated wider reading you have engaged in. Your focus can be broad or you can focus on one specific area that you find of particular interest.

2. Choose a relevant passage from Foucault as an epigraph for your discussion.

3. You are also required to conduct a brief informal discussion with a professional colleague in your field as part of your research on this topic.

2 Assignment template

1. Title of your essay Choose a suitable title

2. Epigraph A relevant passage from Foucault which relates to your discussion

3. Essay Introduction, main body and conclusion, using subheadings of your choice

4. List of References Use APA or other recognised format. See library resources to help you with this. Important: You need to have actually consulted these works and to show evidence of this in your essay.

Subheading (for reference list only, not essay): Works by Foucault Include a minimum of 5 texts (can be more) written by Foucault of relevance to your discussion Subheading (for reference list only, not essay):

Secondary literature Include a minimum of 5 texts (can be more) written by authors who have directly applied Foucault’s work to your chosen area Subheading (for reference list only, not essay): Other works This section is entirely optional and includes works unrelated to Foucault 5.

Appendix 1:

Professional Dialogue A one (1) page summary of a brief informal discussion with a professional colleague in your field Practical suggestions for starting work on your assignment

1. Carefully formulate a question, problem or area that interests you in your professional practice or area of interest etc.

2. Next, do a keyword search of the library catalogue and other databases. There are lots of items in the unit bibliography for you to look at as well.

3. Reading the secondary literature will give you an idea of what sorts of ideas from Foucault’s work scholars find useful in discussing the area you have chosen and what sorts of problems they deal with.

4. Respond to the question, problem or area you have set up while engaging with Foucault’s texts and the texts of other writers who use Foucault. You don’t have to agree with these texts. You just need to engage with them. The point of this assignment is to provide you with training in how to conduct a rigorous intellectual argument and how to engage with specific texts and concepts, even if you disagree with them or find them difficult. Keep it concrete and specific and related to your professional practice or area of interest.

5. If you don’t know how to construct an essay, have a look at the links which have been posted on the discussion forum, on blackboard or below and use the resources the library offers in terms of helping you with essay structure and drafting. Further information and instructions

• This assignment is an essay with introduction, main body and conclusion. Please see CiteWrite for general instructions on how to structure an essay. You can use the structures of any of the different types of essays described there.

• As you are writing a personal philosophy of education and/or professional practice, your essay can also use the genre of ‘reflective writing’ as well as standard scholarly writing.

For a definition of reflective writing see CiteWrite:

• Also on reflective writing see—a-basicintroduction.pdf

• A definition of scholarly writing can be found here

• Use subheadings to organise your essay.

•An epigraph is a quotation set at the beginning of a literary work (for example an essay) or one of its divisions, to suggest its theme.

• You may choose passages either from the set readings or quotations from any other work by Foucault you find of interest. You can also find an additional list of quotations here: You are welcome to use the questions and other material that accompany the passages in the guided readings to help kick start your reflections.

• For (not always entirely scholarly) examples of how quotations from Foucault can be used as epigraphs see: • Citations (including epigraphs) are not included as part of the set word length.

• Your interview write up in the Appendix is not included in the set word length.

• For a list of suggestions as to what might constitute possible areas of professional interest, see the table at the end of this document. This list is by no means comprehensive and your own creative responses are strongly encouraged. You are also welcome to use the questions and other material that accompany the passages in the guided readings to help generate ideas for your reflections. EDN 610 Assignment 2 4

• You may also find Chapter 4 of the textbook ‘A tool box for cultural analysis’ on Foucault’s method and its application to be of assistance. Foucault on philosophy ‘What is philosophy if not a way of reflecting, not so much on what is true and what is false, as on our relationship to truth? … The movement by which, not without effort and uncertainty, dreams and illusions, one detaches oneself from what is accepted as true and seeks other rules – that is philosophy.’ Michel Foucault. (1997) [1980]. ‘The Masked Philosopher’. In J. Faubion (ed.). Tr. Robert Hurley and others. Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth. The Essential Works of Michel Foucault 1954-1984. Volume One. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, Allen Lane, p. 327. Translation modified. What is philosophy?’ This is a question that Foucault raises on numerous occasions in various forms throughout his work. For all the variations in his response to this question, he always insisted that philosophy operated firmly within a historical context and could only manifest itself through quite specific historical practices and events and the way we engage historically with ourselves and others. Philosophy, for Foucault, is not a question of stripping away historical accidents so that we can discover what is absolutely true for all time, rather it is a way of examining the ways in which people and systems of knowledge have made a division between the true and the false in very specific historical contexts. These divisions directly impact on the ways people conduct themselves in relation to themselves and others. Philosophy should also, in Foucault’s view, deal with the question of what is happening right now and with what our responsibilities are in relation to this very specific time and place. Definitions of philosophy Overall Suggestions We are engaging with the work of Michel Foucault in this unit as one model of how philosophy and theory can be practised. I would suggest that, like Foucault, you retain your focus on concrete events, practices and programs for action, whether these are historical or contemporary, rather than engaging in abstract speculation. Use both the set readings and associated wider readings you have done as models of how to construct your own personal philosophy of education or professional practice or reflection on the institution of the family. I would strongly suggest avoiding much of the literature in English labelled ‘philosophy of education’. Much of it is rather dry and technical and comes out of the English language analytical tradition of philosophy which we are not engaging with in this unit. EDN 610 Assignment 2 5 A few general areas dealt with by philosophy We have dealt with all these areas in the readings. • What is truth? How different societies and cultures have drawn the boundaries between the true and the false both in the past and the present. • What is knowledge and what is valid knowledge? Who defines particular forms of knowledge as valid? How do we organise knowledge in relation to the world we live in? • The relation to oneself and also between self and others (both human and non-human). These relations can be placed in historical and localised contexts (eg how these operate in institutions with an educational function). • Relations of power • Historical and contemporary systems of ethics and morals. What ethics can I personally adopt? • The examination of concepts, practices and social institutions that are taken for granted. • The questioning of everyday assumptions about the way things are. • Social justice and definitions of freedom. • What is existence? What does it mean to exist? • How have people historically and in the contemporary era made sense of the world and their relations to themselves and each other? How have people made the world intelligible? • Can we do better? • Etc. Possible Ideas for your own discussion as subsets of the above • Notions of the division between theory and practice in your profession • How is knowledge constructed in your professional area • How relations of power operate in your area (take a concrete approach to this, with discussion of policies and actual practices and struggles) • How you are constructed as a ‘subject’ (or identity) in your professional field or setting. Are there conflicting forces at work here? • Assumptions underlying practice in your field • How relations between learner and teacher or service provider and client are theorised and practised in your area. Conflicts and disagreements. • Current ethical concerns and discussions in your profession or other setting. • Tensions between the older notions of what constitutes the identity of the teacher and current professional, institutional and government imperatives and whether or not these are resolvable • Struggles around what constitutes suitable curriculum or the accepted knowledge base and procedures in your area • What does education or professional practice mean in your workplace setting? • What behaviour is expected of you in your professional or family role? Are these expectations conflicting? How far do you go along with or alternately resist these expectations? (This discussion like the others needs to be linked to scholarly literature). • Tensions between policy and other programs and what people actually do in practice EDN 610 Assignment 2 6 • Conflicting views of what it means to be an educator or a professional in your field. • How physical space or time are organised in your workplace and your own views on this. • Family role expectations and historical and contemporary tensions between the institution of the family and other social institutions • Etc… A few non-compulsory and optional suggestions to further help you structure your response Your professional role and identity in relation to others 1. Use the notions of the care of the self and others, as they are discussed by Foucault, to examine your role as either educator, family member or professional. 2. Using Foucault’s four part model of how the ethical relationship to self and others is created historically, examine your role as either educator, family member or professional in your social, cultural and historical context. Also discuss the modifications that you as an individual bring to these contexts and formations. You can find the description of this 4 part model in these two readings which are included in the set reading list: Michel Foucault [1984] “On the genealogy of ethics: an overview of work in progress” P. Rabinow, ed., (1991)The Foucault Reader (London: Penguin), pp. 350-9. Foucault, M. (1991). The Use of Pleasure. The History of Sexuality vol 2. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1992. Introduction:

Chapter 3. Morality and Practice of the Self, pp. 25-32. There is also a wide secondary literature employing this four part structure. 3. Using Foucault’s notion of governmentality, describe how you are governed and govern yourself and others in your professional or family role. Knowledge and power 4. Examine how knowledge is currently governed in your curriculum or other discipline or professional area. Whose interests are being served? What strategies are being employed to disseminate and uphold a particular ‘regime of truth’? What mechanisms are used to distinguish ‘true’ knowledge from ‘false’ knowledge in your chosen area? What (if any) alternative ‘resistant’ knowledges are being proposed in opposition to the ruling ‘regime of truth’? If there is a particular ‘crisis’ occurring in how knowledge is currently being validated in your chosen area, focus on this crisis. This text, in addition to the set readings, might also be quite useful, although some of it is difficult (of course!) Michel Foucault, “The order of discourse,” translated by Ian McLeod in R. Young (ed.). (1981). Untying the Text: a Poststructuralist Reader. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 48-78 pdf EDN 610 Assignment 2 7 Philosophical Dialogue (one page or less) Important: This should only be a very minor and stress free component of your work.

• Have a look at the various interviews and discussions included in the set readings we have looked at in the unit and also at the two models listed below of major thinkers conducting dialogues with each other. You don’t need to worry about coming even close to these levels of discussion. These are simply possible models of how it can be done. • Your discussion should be a free ranging and informal discussion about philosophical issues both you and your dialogue companion find interesting in relation to education, your professional or family experience. It is not necessary for your dialogue companion to be familiar with Foucault.

• A brief description of the professional role of the person you have selected and the content of the conversation should be included as an appendix. This appendix should no more than one page. Only a brief reference to the interview is required within the body of your essay.

• You can, if you wish, invite a fellow professional who is also a student in the unit to be your dialogue companion. Models Chomsky, Noam and Foucault, Michel [1971] “Human nature: justice versus power: a debate between Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault” In N. Chomsky and M. Foucault, The ChomskyFoucault debate: on Human nature (New York: New Press, 2006), pp. 1-67. Original TV debate on youtube in link below. You may prefer to watch this rather than reading the above text. Select ‘captions’ in the bar below the video and make sure they are switched on for subtitles. Debate starts at 3 mins 30. For further info on this debate see here Foucault, Michel and Deleuze, Gilles, “Intellectuals and power” S. Lotringer, ed., Foucault live (interviews, 1961-1984) (New York: Semiotext(e), 1996), pp. 74-82. Translated by Donald F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon. You might like to google both Gilles Deleuze and Noam Chomsky for further information about these noted philosophers. General instructions and broad suggestions for topics 1. In choosing what to discuss in your assignment, make sure you address topics you are genuinely interested in and feel strongly about. This will not only make your task much easier and more personally rewarding, but will be much more interesting for the reader. EDN 610 Assignment 2 8 Don’t hesitate to ask for assistance both from the teaching staff and other unit participants in the two discussion forums for the unit in developing your areas of interest. 2. This assignment is as much about learning to engage in a particular kind of research process as in producing content. Read, reflect, discuss and experiment with the ideas presented in the set readings. You can be entirely critical of these ideas if you wish. You can also combine them with any number of other theoretical approaches. Have a look at the secondary literature which uses Foucault in your chosen area for examples of creative and highly productive departures from Foucault’s ideas. 3. As well as referring to the set readings and other works by Foucault, you need to make extensive use of secondary literature which relates to your chosen topic and which applies or critiques Foucault’s ideas in some way. It is fine to take a strongly critical position – but you need to demonstrate you are able to engage with the ideas presented in the unit in detail. A few Foucault references tacked onto an essay which relies primarily on completely different theories (for example those derived from Piaget, Glasser, Vygotsky, Gardner, Hattie, Ken Robinson and so on) is not sufficient. At least five (5) of your references need to be to Foucault’s own texts and five (5) references to literature which applies his work in some way – even if only to be critical of it. The idea is not to turn you into Foucault clones but for you to learn how to rigorously engage in a particular kind research process using theory. This is a way of learning and getting practice in how to do work with theory and in coming up with your own creative ideas. 4. Relate your discussions to your own professional practice and area. If you are located in a professional area other than schools, there is plenty of Foucault related work in your own profession that you can use. If you are a family carer, use that context. 5. You don’t need to provide solutions to problems. You merely need to explore them and define their parameters and perhaps generate new insights. By all means offer solutions if you wish however. 6. Your account should be supported by detailed and rigorous references to scholarly sources. For a detailed description of what constitutes a scholarly source please visit 7. You can situate your discussions within as broad a setting as you wish – not just limited to the context of educational institutions and programs. EDN 610 Assignment 2 9 Topics relating to professional practice: some suggestions NB: You are encouraged to come up with ideas not on this list. Be creative! Primary notions Related notions Leadership accountability Entrepeneurs and entrepeneurship Change management Managerialism and performativity advanced liberalism and neoliberalism marketisation standardisation Organisational culture Professional standards professionalism Theory and practice Teacher identity Teacher roles and job description Policy education and school reform Curriculum reform citizenship education Lobby groups ICTs and technology Web 2.0 social networks Digital cultures media Curriculum The Australian curriculum Specific curriculum areas and disciplines Sexuality gender homophobia feminism Masculinity Disciplinary culture and techniques Behaviour management bullying delinquency regulation Surveillance Panopticon Surveillance technology Childhood Early childhood play Child guided learning Youth and adolescence subcultures Popular culture Student identity Disability inclusive education ADHD Autism Special schools vs mainstreaming Body Sport Disciplinary training of bodies Performing arts Alternative education homeschooling Ethics and values Social justice Values education Universities and higher education Lifelong learning Professional development Adult education Adult learners Assessment examination High stakes testing NAPLAN Standardised testing Race and ethnicity Postcolonialism Intercultural awareness/competence Discrimination EDN 610 Assignment 2 10 International students Developing countries Migration and migrants TESOL Languages other than English (LOTE) ESL Risk management compliance regulation Legal requirements Nursing health Professional identity Identity Professional identity Student identity Marginalised groups identity Family mothers Child parent relations fathers Parent teacher relations Environment and sustainability Climate change Science education Architecture Classroom design space playground Building design Aboriginality Indigenous education Embedding indigenous curriculum Time management timetables Literacy Reading and writing Media debates over literacy Equity Socioeconomic status Social class Teaching and learning Learning practices Training vs education homework Explicit instruction Culture Subcultures Popular culture literature Art, Music

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